Consider the western modernist ethical theories as described in chapter

v Consider the western modernist ethical theories as described in chapter 3. Western modernist ethical theories: In the eighteenth century the people began with philosophical thinking in Europe and the US this age is therefore referred to as modernity. The theories made in this age are therefore called Western modernist theories. These theories generally offer a certain rule or principle that one can apply to any given situation (because they were absolutist). The main advantage of these theories is the fact that they normally provide us with a fairly unequivocal (eenduidige) solution to ethical problems. Theories generally can be divided into two groups: 1. Consequentialist theories: They base moral judgment on the outcomes of a certain action. If their outcomes are desirable then the action in question is morally right. So the moral judgment is based on the outcomes the aims or the goals of a certain action. Are also called teleological (goal). 2. Non-consequentialist theories: The moral judgment is based on the underlying principles of the decision maker’s motivation. An action is right or wrong because the underlying principles are morally right. Are also called deontological (duty). I. Egoism: An action is morally right if the decision maker freely decides in order to pursue either their short-term desires or their long-term interests. The theory focuses on the outcomes for the decision maker. As a man has only limited insight into the consequences of his action the only suitable strategy to achieve a good life is to pursue his own desires or interests. The theory approaches the idea of objective value: one way of acting is objectively better or more ethical than another. One limitation of egoism theory: this theory is based on a perfect market but there never will be a perfect market. For example the sustainability debate; the victims of todays global climate change are future generations which are not yet present to take part in any kind of market. II. Utilitarianism: An action is morally right if it results in the greatest amount of good for the greatest amount of people affected by the action. The theory focuses on the wider social outcomes within a community. The greatest happiness principle -as it is also called- focuses on the consequences of an action weighs the good results against the bad results and finally encourages the action that results in the greatest amount of good for all people involved. The action with the highest aggregate utility -the value of the action- can be determined to be morally correct. Unlike egoism it does not only look at each individual involved and ask whether their individual desires and interest are met but it focuses on the collective welfare that is produced by a certain decision. It comes close to a cost-benefit analysis III. Ethics of duties:The ethical theory that consist of abstract unchangeable obligations defined by a set of rationally deduced a priori of moral rules which should be applied to all relevant ethical problems. According to Kant morality is a question eternal abstract and unchangeable principle; a set of priori moral laws that humans should apply to all ethical problems. He saw humans as rational actors who could decide these principles for themselves. Kant developed a theoretical framework for these principles: the categorical imperative. It consists of three parts: Consistency Human dignity Universality. IV. Rights and justice. 1. Rights: John Locke conceptualized the notion of human rights: certain basic important unalienable entitlements that should be respected and protected in every single action to all human beings without exception. Examples of these rights are the rights to life freedom and property. Corporations especially multinationals are increasingly judged with regard to their attitude to human rights and how far they respect and protect them. Rights are sometimes seen as related to duties since the rights of one person can result in a corresponding duty on other persons. This link to corresponding duties makes the theory of rights similar to Kant’s approach. The main difference is that it does not rely on a complex process of determining the duties by applying the categorical imperative. A limitation of the theory is that notions of rights are quite strongly located in a Western view of morality. 2. Justice: The simultaneously fair treatment of individuals in a given situation with the result that everybody gets what they deserve. Theories of justice typically see fairness in two main ways: Fair procedures: fairness is determined according to whether everyone has been free to acquire rewards for his or her efforts. Also called procedural justice Fair outcomes: fairness is determined according to whether the consequences (positive and negative) are distributed in a just manner according to some underlying principle such as need or merit. Also called distributive justice. How would each of these ethical theories answer the problem in an ethical dilemma 3- producing toys child play

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